Assessing the evidence on Artificial Intelligence

Health technology assessments and real-world needs for decision-making in health care


  • Eftyhia Helis CADTH
  • Charlotte Wells
  • Andra Morrison
  • Chantelle Lachance


artificial intelligence, evidence, AI use in Canada



Artificial Intelligence (AI) is rapidly entering the field of medicine. With many AI tools available, an increased interest in understanding and identifying effective AI applications for different aspects of healthcare delivery is reported by decision-makers in Canada.


This presentation will provide an overview of recent evidence reviews by the Canadian Agency of Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) on AI technologies for two different fields in healthcare: lung cancer diagnosis (1) and mental health (in collaboration with the Mental Health Commission of Canada) (2). It will highlight the process for evaluating the evidence on the clinical utility of AI applications, the diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and guidelines for clinical use. The presentation will also cover high-level findings of a pan-Canadian survey that collected information about the extent and type of use of AI in imaging departments across Canada (3).


The objective of this presentation is to highlight current evidence and real-world use of various applications of AI in healthcare. In addition to the main findings of the evidence reviews, the presentation will aim to invite a discussion on implications of the findings for policy and clinical decisions and the utility and value of such reviews for addressing the needs of healthcare decision-makers in the context of the rapidly evolving field of AI.


  1. Artificial intelligence for classification of lung nodules: clinical utility, diagnostic accuracy, cost-effectiveness and guidelines. (CADTH rapid response report: summary with critical appraisal). Ottawa: CADTH; 2020 Jan.
  2. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Mental Health Services: A Literature Review. Ottawa: CADTH; 2020 Aug. (CADTH Rapid Response Report: Summary With Critical Appraisal). Joint publication with the Mental Health Commission of Canada.
  3. The Canadian Medical Inventory 2019-2020. Ottawa: CADTH; 2021 Jan. (CADTH health technology review).




How to Cite

E. Helis, C. Wells, A. Morrison, and C. . Lachance, “Assessing the evidence on Artificial Intelligence: Health technology assessments and real-world needs for decision-making in health care”, CMBES Proc., vol. 44, May 2021.